Digital certificates in windows, either the end entitty certificates, called Personal Certificates, the subCAs or the Root CAs, are stored in the so called Certificate Stores. There are different types of Certificate Stores but the more relevant ones are:
• Personal CA Store: Certificates, either end entities, subCAs or Root CAs, that apply to the current user
• Local Machine CA Store: Certificates, either end entities, subCAs or Root CAs, that apply to the system account. These apply to the user too. This means that a certificate issued by a Root CA available in the Local Machine CA Store but missing in the Personal CA Store would be treated as a valid.
In order to have access to the digital certificates used by Windows and integrated applications you need to follow these steps: (Have in mind that Firefox uses its own digital certificate stores).
From the command line open an MMC:
In the MMC add the Certificate snap-in
If you have local machine admin rights you have the right to choose the CA Store you want to open, if not it will automatically open the Personal CA Store
The naming can be a bit confusing but you should concentrate in the following folders:
• Personal: These are the end entity certificates assigned to the account (User or System)
• Trusted Root Certification Authorities: The Root CAs
• Intermediate Certificate Authorities: The subCAs
From the Certificate console, you are able to browse, add, delete all different types of certificates. If you need information of the other folders you can check the Microsoft article https://www.microsoft.com/resources/documentation/windows/xp/all/proddocs/en-us/sag_cmuncertstor.mspx .
As said, if the user does not have admin rights he won´t be allowed to choose the “Computer account” where the certificates that apply to the System account are stored. Something that creates a bit of confusion is the fact that the Root CAs and subCAs from that store apply to the current user. Unfortunately these can only be examined by the end user in case his account has local admin machine rights. Although it’s understandable that a restricted user should not be available to apply changes that will affect all users, it makes no sense that it is not allowed to list the complete list of Root CAs available in the System account and that will be trusted in any SSL connection he establishes.
The good news is that the restrictions to access the Local Machine CA Store are rather weak and I just found a quick workaround for this.
From a computer where you have admin rights perform the steps above and repeat them adding the Computer Account. You should have a console with entries to the user and system accounts:
Go to "File -> Save as" and save the console (with extension msc) in a known directory. Transfer the file using a USB disk or by email to the target computer and you will be able to access the “restricted” Local Machine Store even if the logged user does not have local admin rights.
This is a simple hack but very useful when troubleshooting certificate related problems when users have restricted accounts. I have tested in a Windows 7, if you test it in other platforms let me know the results.
I just hope that the rest of the Windows 7 access control mechanisms are more robust than this!